Main Article Content

Trong Nhan Pham Nguyen
Ban Mai Nguyen
Bich Tuyen Vo


Covid-19 created an unprecedented and severe crisis in Ho Chi Minh City. One of the more serious consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic has been social distancing. For the education system, the pandemic has directly affected students’ learning processes. Students have to study online at the begining of the new school year. This study aimed to investigate and clarify the impact of factors affecting the satisfaction of university students in Ho Chi Minh City in the online learning process. A total of 999 university students participated in a student satisfaction survey. The survey results show that most of students participating in the survey are satisfied with their online learning process. Many factors had a positive influence on students’ satisfaction in online learning, in which learning conferencing software had the greatest influence. Another finding was that there is a huge difference in students’ responses to learning conferencing software. The
study determined that the experience of using learning conferencing software influences student satisfaction, and it evaluated which learning conferencing software is the most optimal. Students satisfaction also varied depending on the number of academic years which the respondents had previously completed. This study’s findings are valuable for higher education administrators who want to improve student satisfaction with online
learning as it makes suggestions and recommendations to improve the quality of online learning and student satisfaction in Vietnam.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite


[1] Unicef Vietnam for every child. What we
know about the Omicron variant: What is
Omicron and what precautions should you
take to protect your family?. Available from
https://www.unicef.org/vietnam/stories/whatwe-know-about-omicron-variant [Accessed 30th
December 2021].
[2] Vi Cuong. Many Asian countries closed again
because of the Omicron variant. 2021. Available from https://plo.vn/quoc-te/nhieu-nuoc-chau-alai-dong-cua-vi-bien-the-omicron-1031203.html [Accessed 30th December 2021].
[3] Vietnam Ministry of Health. Dịch COVID-19:
Thế giới chạy đua ngăn chặn biến thể mới
Omicron (COVID-19 pandemic: The world races
to prevent the new variant Omicron). 2021.
Available from https://moh.gov.vn/tin-tong-hop/-
[Accessed 30th December 2021].
[4] Tran Thi Van Hoa, Pham Thi Huyen, Nguyen Quynh
Hoa. COVID-19 pandemic: How to turn challenges
to opportunities for Vietnam higher education institutions in the new context. Journal of Economics and
Development (JED). 2020;274: 64–74.
[5] Pham Thi Mai Vui, Nghiem Hong Van, Nguyen
Hoang Duong, Pham Ngoc Thach. Online learning:
Factors affecting learner satisfaction. VNU Journal of
Social Sciences and Humanities. 2021;7(1): 45–64.
[6] Pham Do Nhat Tien. Quality assurance and accreditation in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic:
Impacts and issues. Vietnam Journal of Science and
Education. 2021;37: 1–8.
[7] Huwaidi F, Nandiyanto ABD, Muhammad N. The
urgency of online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic at the vocational school in Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Educational Research and Technology. 2021;1(2): 35–40.
[8] AFreigang S, Schlenker L, Kohler T. A concep- ¨
tual framework for designing smart learning environments. Smart Learning Environments. 2018;27(5): 1–
[9] Hoel T, Mason J. Standards for smart education–towards a development framework. Smart Learning Environments. 2018;3(5): 1–25.
[10] Febrianto PT, Mas’ udah S, Megasari LA. Implementation of Online Learning during The Covid-19
Pandemic on Madura lsland, lndonesia. International
Joumal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2020;19(8): 233–254.
[11] Sharin AN. E-Learning during Covid-19: A review of literature. Jurnal Pengajian Media Malaysia.
2021;23(1): 15–28.
[12] Roman M, Plopeanu AP. The effectiveness of the
emergency eLearning during COVID-19 pandemic.
The case of higher education in economics in Romania. International Review of Economics Education.
2021;37: 1–14.
[13] Nichols M. A theory for eLearning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 2003;6(2): 1–10.
[14] Smaldino SE, Lowther DL, Russell JD, Mims C.Instructional technology and media for learning. 12th
ed. Hudson Street, NY: Pearson; 2008: 141.
[15] Clark RC, Mayer RE. ELearning and the science
of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and
designers of multimedia learning. New York, US:
Wiley; 2016.
[16] Yilmaz O. E-learning: Students input for using mobile
devices in science instructional settings. Journal of
Education and Learning. 2016;5(3): 182–192.
[17] Picciano AG, Dziuban CD, Graham CR. Blended
learning: Research perspectives. Routledge; 2014; 2.
[18] Angeliki P, Asimina M, Eleni B. When Instruction
Meets Design: Embedding Instructional Theory. Paper presented at: the International Association for
Education and Training. Rome, Italy; 2005.
[19] Brown AR, Voltz BD. Elements of effective eLearning design. The International Review of Research in
Open and Distance Learning. 2005;6(1): 217–226.
[20] Steen HL. Effective eLearning design. MERLOT
Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 2008;4(4):
[21] Kind T, Evans Y. Social media for lifelong learning.
International Review of Psychiatry. 2015;27(2): 124–
[22] Livana PH , Basthomi Y, Sari RK, Suyanto, Wakhid
A, Mubin MF, Aziz F, Astutik W, Hasanah U.
Learning media used by Indonesian students during the pandemic Covid 19. In: Online International Conference on Life Sciences (OICLS-20).
2020. Green Global Research, Education & Event
Network. Available from: https://www.greennetworkevents.com/all_images/file_580.pdf [Accessed: Dec
28, 2021].
[23] Sakkir G, Dollah S, Ahmad J. Favorite E-learning
media in pandemic Covid-19 era. Jurnal Studi Guru
Dan Pembelajaran. 2020;3(3): 480–485.
[24] Fuady I, Sutarjo MAS, Ernawati E. Analysis of students’ perceptions of online learning media during
the Covid-19 pandemic (Study of E-learning media:
Zoom, Google Meet, Google Classroom, and LMS).
Randwick International of Social Science Journal.
2021;2(1): 51–56.
[25] Atina A. The effectiveness of using distance learning
media in the Covid-19 pandemic at SDN 50 Mandau. JURNAL PAJAR (Pendidikan dan Pengajaran).
2020;4(6): 1324–1333.
[26] A’yun K, Suharso P, Kantun S. Google Classroom
as the online learning platform during the Covid-
19 pandemic for the Management Business student
at SMK Negeri 1 Lumajang. In IOP Conference
Series: Earth and Environmental Science,3rd International Conference on Environmental Geography
and Geography Education. 2020. EastJava. East Java,
Indonesia: IOP. 2021: 1–7.
[27] Yildiz EP, Tezer M, Uzunboylu H. Student opinion
scale related to Moodle LMS in an online learning
environment: Validity and reliability study. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies.
2018;12(4): 97–108.
[28] Pei L, Wu H. Does online learning work better than
offline learning in undergraduate medical education?
A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medical education online. 2019;24(1): 1–13.
[29] Baber H. Determinants of students’ perceived learning outcome and satisfaction in online learning during
the pandemic of COVID-19. Journal of Education
and E-learning Research. 2020;7(3): 285–292.
[30] Lindgaard G, Dudek C. What is this evasive beast
we call user satisfaction?. Interacting with Computers.
2003;15(3): 429–452.
[31] Luong Dinh Hai, Nguyen Xuan An, Nguyen Hoai
Thu, Vu Thi Phuong Thao. Nhận thức và thái độ của
sinh viên đối với việc học tập thông qua các công cụ
hội nghị trực tuyến trong bối cảnh đại dịch COVID-19
(Students’ perceptions and attitudes towards learning
through online conferencing tools in the context of
the Covid-19 pandemic). Vietnam Journal of Science
and Education. 2020;480(2): 60–64.
[32] Tran Quoc Trung. Hệ thống quản lí học tập trực tuyến
trong giáo dục đại học (Online learning management
system in higher education). Vietnam Journal of Science and Education. 2021;1: 66–71.
[33] Le Huu Nghia, Huynh Thi Luu Kim Huong, Le Thi
Lan Phuong, Lam Cam Tien, Cao Thi Thuy Ha,
Nguyen Van Dan. Đánh giá của giảng viên và sinh
viên về chất lượng phần mềm và hiệu quả dạy – học
trực tuyến mùa dịch Covid-19 tại Khoa Y hoc cổ
truyền - Trường Đại học Y Dược Thành phố Hồ Chí
Minh (Online teaching during the Covid 19 disease
pandemic at the Faculty of Traditional Medicine - Ho
Chi Minh City University of Medicine and Pharmacy:
lecturers and student perspectives). Ho Chi Minh City
University of Education Journal of Science (HCMUE
J. Sci.). 2021;18(2):358–367.
[34] Malik MW, Mubeen G. Student satisfaction towards
E-learning: Influential role of key factors. In: 2nd
Comsats international business research conference
(CBRC). 2009. Lahore, Pakistan. Available from
[Accessed 30th December 2021].
[35] Singh S, Rylander DH, Mims TC. Efficiency of
online vs. offline learning: A comparison of inputs
and outcomes. International Journal of Business,
Humanities and Technology. 2012;2(1): 93–98.
[36] Eggermont S, Bloemendaal PM, van Baalen JM. Elearning any time any place anywhere on mobile devices. Perspectives on Medical Education. 2013;2(2):
[37] Irawan AW, Dwisona D, Lestari M. Psychological
impacts of students on online learning during the
pandemic Covid-19. KONSELI: Jurnal Bimbingan
dan Konseling (E-Journal). 2020;7(1): 53–60.
[38] Pontoh GT, Mediaty, Darmawati, Sadeli YA, FadliS. Does the use of e-learning media for economic disciplines effective during the Covid 19
Pandemic?. 2021;1(91): 115–121. Available from
http://repository.unhas.ac.id/id/eprint/6549 [Accessed
29th December 2021].
[39] Jamalpur B, Chythanya KR, Kumar KS. A
comprehensive overview of online education -
Impact on engineering students during Covid-19.
Materials Today: Proceedings. Available from
[40] Bahasoan AN, Ayuandiani W, Mukhram M, Rahmat A. Effectiveness of online learning in pandemic
Covid-19. International Journal of Science, Technology & Management. 2020;1(2): 100–106.
[41] Davis FD. A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems:
Theory and results. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts
Institute of Technology; 1986.
[42] Suryaman M, Cahyono Y, Muliansyah D, Bustani
O, Suryani P, Fahlevi M et al. Covid-19 pandemic
and home online learning system: Does it affect
the quality of pharmacy school learning. Systematic
Reviews in Pharmacy. 2020;11(8): 524–30.
[43] Simamora RM. The challenges of online learning
during the Covid-19 pandemic: An essay analysis
of performing arts education students. Studies in
Learning and Teaching. 2020;1(2): 86–103.
[44] Pham Nguyen Trong Nhan, Nguyen Mai Lan, Ta Huu
Hien, Nguyen Thi Thuy Phuong, Nguyen Tran Ngoc
Phi. The Relationship between Online Learning and
Student Satisfaction with Training Quality in Private
Universities during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal
of Education and e-Learning Research. 2022;9(1): 8–
[45] Herayanti L, Gummah S, Sukroyanti BA, Ahzan S,
Gunawan G. Developing Moodle in problem-based
learning to improve student comprehension on the
concepts of wave. Advances in Intelligent Systems
Research (AISR). 2018;157(1): 134–137.
[46] Gunawan G, Suranti NMY, Fathoroni F. Variations of
models and learning platforms for prospective teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic period. Indonesian
Journal of Teacher Education. 2020;1(2):61–70.
[47] Vietnam Ministry of Health Portal. TPHCM cần
thực hiện Chỉ thị 16 nghiêm ngặt hơn để kiểm soát
và đẩy lùi dịch bệnh sớm nhất (Ho Chi Minh City
needs to implement Directive 16 more strictly to
control and repel the disease as soon as possible).
2021. Available from https://moh.gov.vn/tin-noi-bat/-
/asset_publisher/3Yst7YhbkA5j/content/tphcm-canthuc-hien-chi-thi-16-nghiem-ngat-hon-e-kiem-soatva-ay-lui-dich-benh-som-nhat [Accessed 30th Dec
[48] Archambault L, Wetzel K, Foulger TS, Williams
MK. Professional development 2.0. Journal of Digital
Learning in Teacher Education. 2010;27(1): 4–11.
[49] Cakrawati LM. Students’ perceptions on the use of
online learning platforms in EFL classroom. ELT
Tech: Journal of English Language Teaching and
Technology. 2017;1(1): 22–30.
[50] Manowong S. Undergraduate students’ perceptions of
Edmodo as a supplementary learning tool in an EFL
classroom. Silpakorn University Journal of Social
Sciences, Humanities, and Arts. 2016;16(2): 137–161.
[51] Al-said KM. Students ’ perceptions of Edmodo and
mobile learning and their real barriers towards them.
TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational
Technology. 2015;14(2): 167–180.
[52] Liu ZY, Lomovtseva N, Korobeynikova E. Online
learning platforms: Reconstructing modern higher
education. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET). 2020;15(13): 4–21.
[53] Ha Nam Khanh Giao. Ngo Thanh Tien. Students Satisfaction of the Quality of the Education Services at the In-Service Training, the University of Finance and Marketing (Sự hài lòng
của sinh viên đối với chất lượng dịch vụ đào
tạo hệ Vừa làm vừa học tại UFM). 2016. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3691417 or
[54] Nguyen Thi Ngoc Diep, Doan Thi Hong Nga. Assessment of students satisfaction on the quality of
university training services by E-learning in the confidence of covid-19 at Lac Hong University. Journal
of Education. 2021;493(1): 59–64.
[55] Wilkinson K, Barter P. Do mobile learning devices
usedenhance learning in higher education anatomy
classrooms?. Journal of Pedagogic Development.
2016;6(1): 14–23.
[56] Radha R, Mahalakshmi K, Kumar VS, Saravanakumar AR. E-learning during lockdown of Covid-19
pandemic: A global perspective. International Journal of Control and Automation. 2020;13(4): 1088–
[57] Irvianti LSD, Hurriyati R, Dirgantari PD. Student
acceptance of E-learning system during Covid-19
Pandemic. In: 5th Global Conference on Business,
Management and Entrepreneurship (GCBME 2020).
Atlantis Press; 2021: 343–346.
[58] Vui PTM, Van NH, Duong NH, Thach PN. Online learning: Factors affecting learner satisfaction.
VNU Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities.
2021;7(1): 45–64.
[59] Pham Nguyen Trong Nhan, Nguyen Tran Ngoc Phi,
Truong Nguyen Le, Nguyen Mai Lan, Nguyen Thi
Thuy Phuong. An assessment on impacts of online education on training quality and satisfaction
of tourism undergraduate students in a private university and managerial implications for educators.
International Research Journal of Management, IT
and Social Sciences. 2021;8(6): 534–547.
[60] Dinh LP, Nguyen TT. Pandemic, social distancing,
and social work education: Students’ satisfaction with
online education in Vietnam. Social Work Education.
2020;39(8): 1074–1083.